UNDERSTANDING TYPE 2 DIABATES

A FEW SNIPPETS ON UNDERSTANDING  TYPE 2  DIABETES

Diabetes is a disease that affects your body’s ability to produce or use insulin. Insulin is a hormone. When your body turns the food you eat into energy (also called sugar or glucose), insulin is released to help transport this energy to the cells.

Whether you’ve been newly diagnosed, have been fighting against type 1 or type 2 diabetes for a while, or are helping a loved one, you’ve come to the right place. This is the start of gaining a deeper understanding of how you can live a healthier life—with all the tools, health tips, and food ideas you need. Wherever you’re at with this disease, know that you have options and that you don’t have to be held back. You can still live your best life. All you have to do is take action and stick with it. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes—and it means that your body doesn’t use insulin properly. And while some people can control their blood sugar levels with healthy eating and exercise, others may need medication or insulin to help manage it.

Understanding Type 2 Diabetes

 Type 2 diabetes, also called Diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous metabolic disorder that hampers the pancreas’ ability to release insulin and in some cases prevents the body from utilizing the insulin from the pancreas. This consequently leads to a condition referred to as hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia refers to high levels of sugar, or glucose, in the blood. It occurs when the body does not produce or use enough insulin, which is a hormone that absorbs glucose into cells for use as energy. High blood sugar is a leading indicator of diabetes. It is also noteworthy that individual with diabetes need proper care and treatment or face the risk of developing kidney and heart diseases.

Hyperglycemia early symptoms that you should look out for

  • Increased thirst.
  • Headaches.
  • Trouble concentrating.
  • Blurred vision.
  • Frequent urination.
  • Fatigue (weak, tired feeling)
  • Weight loss.
  • Blood sugar more than 180 mg/dL
  • Excessive eating is also reported in most patients.
  • Nausea
  • Fruity breath

These symptoms may present singly or all of them.

Risk factors that could predispose you to Type 2 Diabetes

  1.  If you are overweight or obese-Being overweight or obese increases a person’s risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Also, weight gain in people with type 2 diabetes makes blood sugar levels even harder to control. People with type 2 diabetes have a condition called insulin resistance. … So, the amount of glucose in the blood rises
  2.  If you are age 45 or older- . You can develop type 2 diabetes at any age, even during childhood. However, type 2 diabetes occurs most often in middle-aged and older people .Older adults are at high risk for the development of type 2 diabetes due to the combined effects of increasing insulin resistance and impaired pancreatic islet function with aging
  3.  If you have a family history of diabetes just like type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes is inherited. This means a group of genes that can lead to type 2 diabetes is passed down from mothers and fathers to their children. Not everyone who inherits the genes will develop it, but if you have the genes for type 2 diabetes, you’ve got a greater chance of developing i
  4.  If you are African American, Alaska Native, American Indian, Asian American, Hispanic/Latino, Native Hawaiian, or Pacific Islander-Pacific Islanders and American Indians have the highest rates of diabetes among the 5 racial groups counted in the U.S. Census. They’re more than twice as likely to have the condition as whites, who have about an 8% chance of having it as adults.

Diabetes is also more common among African-Americans and Asian-Americans compared to whites. Rates can vary by ethnicity, too. Asian Indians are 2-3 times as likely to get diabetes as Korean-Americans are. Far fewer Alaska Natives have it than American Indians in southern Arizona. 

  1. If you have high blood pressure-Having hypertension appears to increase the risk of type 2 diabetes, and having type 2 diabetes increases the risk of hypertension. Also, having one or both conditions increase the risk of various complications, including: heart attack or stroke, decreased kidney function, progressing to dialysis.
  2.  If you have a low level of HDL (“good”) cholesterol, or a high level of triglycerides-While having low triglycerides and ​LDL cholesterol can have a positive effect on your heart health, having low levels of HDL cholesterol may count against you. Low levels of HDL cholesterol are consistently associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, plasma HDL cholesterol increasing has been suggested as a novel therapeutic option to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes.

Managing Type 2 Diabetes

Pharmacological Interventions

First and second generation sulfonylureas are oral medications prescribed for patients who have type 2 diabetes. Examples of first-generation sulfonylureas include;-

  1. I. Chlorpropamide (Diabinese) and 
  2. II. Tolbutamide (Orinase). 
  3. Examples of second-generation sulfonylureas include;-
  4. I. Glyburide (Diabeta and Micronase)
  5. II. Glipizide (Glucotrol and Glucotrol XL)
  6. III. Metformin (Glucophage)

Medical practitioners are advised to begin treatment by offering the lowest dose and up the dosage gradually until the patient starts showing signs of recovery. These medications work binding to the beta cells responsible for insulin release stimulation. They block Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) which is sensitive to potassium and consequently increase cytoplasmic calcium entry .Metformin is an efficient oral medication for patients with type 2 diabetes although prescription is not advisable for patients who also have kidney disorders.

Non-pharmacological interventions

Patients with type 2 diabetes can also use Non-pharmacological intervention techniques such as dietary analysis and exercise. 

  • Include foods rich in fiber and healthy carbohydrates in your diet.
  • Eat at regular intervals.
  • Only eat until you’re full.
  • Control your weight and keep your heart healthy.
  • Get about half an hour of aerobic activity daily to help keep your heart healthy.

If you have type 2 diabetes, you know what to do. Anyone can get diabetes and so it is important to watch our lifestyle and dietary habits that could predispose us to getting it. If you have any questions concerning diabetes, feel free to engage us in our comments section. The good thing is that we can all do something to make our health better, whether or not we have diabetes.

Wishing you the very best from this end. As always stay well and healthy.